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A novel method for simultaneous segmentation of multiple interacting surfaces belonging to multiple interacting objects, called LOGISMOS (layered optimal graph image segmentation of multiple objects and surfaces), is reported. The approach is based on the algorithmic incorporation of multiple spatial inter-relationships in a single n-dimensional graph, followed by graph optimization that yields a globally optimal solution. The LOGISMOS method's utility and performance are demonstrated on a bone and cartilage segmentation task in the human knee joint. Although trained on only a relatively small number of nine example images, this system achieved good performance. Judged by dice similarity coefficients (DSC) using a leave-one-out test, DSC values of 0.84 0.04, 0.80 0.04 and 0.80 0.04 were obtained for the femoral, tibial, and patellar regions, respectively. These are excellent DSC values, considering the narrow-sheet character of the cartilage regions. Similarly, low signed mean cartilage thickness errors were obtained when compared to a manually-traced independent standard in 60 randomly selected 3-D MR image datasets from the Osteoarthritis Initiative database-0.11 0.24, 0.05 0.23, and 0.03 0.17 mm for the femoral, tibial, and patellar cartilage thickness, respectively. The average signed surface positioning errors for the six detected surfaces ranged from 0.04 0.12 mm to 0.16 0.22 mm. The reported LOGISMOS framework provides robust and accurate segmentation of the knee joint bone and cartilage surfaces of the femur, tibia, and patella. As a general segmentation tool, the developed framework can be applied to a broad range of multiobject multisurface segmentation problems.