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Joint transmitter-receiver optimization in generalized multicarrier code-division multiplexing (GMC-CDM) systems is investigated in this paper. The optimization consists of a one-tap post-frequency-domain equalizer (post-FDE) and a one-tap pre-FDE. While the one-tap post-FDE is optimized under the criterion of minimum mean square error (MMSE), the one-tap pre-FDE is achieved through three stages of optimization, which are operated at different levels and motivated to achieve, possibly, different objectives, including maximum throughput and maximum reliability. Specifically, in our three-stage pre-FDE, the first-stage pre-FDE is operated at the symbol level, concerning only the symbols within a group. The second-stage pre-FDE is carried out at the group level for harmonization among the groups. Finally, the third-stage pre-FDE handles group partition. In this paper, the error and throughput performance of the GMC-CDM systems is investigated when assuming communications over frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channels. It can be shown that the reliability or throughput of the GMC-CDM systems can be significantly improved by employment of the proposed pre- and post-FDE schemes. Furthermore, the pre- and post-FDE algorithms obtained can be implemented with high flexibility, which facilitates a GMC-CDM system to achieve a good tradeoff between its throughput and reliability.