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Throughput maximization is one of the main challenges in cognitive radio ad hoc networks, where the availability of local spectrum resources may change from time to time and hop-by-hop. Cooperative transmission exploits spatial diversity without multiple antennas at each node to increase capacity with reliability guarantees. This idea is particularly attractive in wireless environments due to the diverse channel quality and the limited energy and bandwidth resources. With cooperation, source node and relay node cooperatively transmit data to the destination. In such a virtual multiple antenna transmission system, the capacity of the cooperative link is much larger than that of the direct link from source to destination. In this paper, we will study decentralized and localized algorithms for joint dynamic routing, relay assignment, and spectrum allocation under a distributed and dynamic environment.