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Limited energy resources in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) call for a comprehensive cross-layer analysis of energy consumption in a multi-hop network. In this paper, we provide a stochastic analysis of the energy consumption in a random network environment. Accordingly, a comprehensive cross-layer analysis framework, which employs a stochastic queueing model in realistic channel environments, is developed. This framework accurately predicts the distribution of energy consumption for nodes in WSNs during a given time period. We show that when the time duration is long, the energy consumption asymptotically approaches a Normal distribution. Using the distribution of energy consumption, the distribution of node lifetime is also investigated. With the help of this probabilistic model, a case study with an anycast protocol is conducted to show how the developed framework can analytically predict the distribution of energy consumption and lifetime. Comprehensive simulations and testbed experiments are provided to validate the developed model. The cross-layer framework is also used to identify relationships between the distribution of energy consumption and network parameters, such as network density, duty cycle, and traffic rate. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to investigate probabilistic distribution of energy consumption in WSNs.