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Two pilot biofuels projects in Japan have allowed a better understanding of the actual land use, processing requirements, and impacts to the environment and society of biofuels. Through the use of Total Cost Assessment (TCA), this study looks at the costs and benefits of Japanese investments in biofuels production. One project focuses on fuel from waste bioproducts, such as animal manure, sludge, and food processing residues. The other focuses on fuel production from crops grown specifically for this purpose.