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Phototherapy has attracted increasing attention in recent years because numerous applications and controlled studies on the method have been reported. According to these reports, low-level red light irradiation can lead to celluar proliferation and enhance cell differentiation. The purpose of this in vitro study is to investigate the influence of red light from a light-emitting diode (LED) on rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMCs). The cells were seeded in 35-mm tissue culture dishes and cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium (ODM). BMSCs were irradiated once with low-level red light (620nm, 1W, 1.5 J/cm2). Then we analyzed celluar viability via methyl-tetra-zolium (MTT) assay and mRNA expression of collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1) via reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). MTT assay result indicated that irradiated cells significantly proliferated. The irradiated cells had higher mRNA expression of COL1A1 than the control. In conclusion, low-level red light from LED could enhance cellular viability and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs.