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In this paper, we consider a two-hop relay-assisted cognitive downlink Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) system (named as secondary system) dynamically accessing a spectrum licensed to a primary network, thereby improving the efficiency of spectrum usage. A cluster-based relay-assisted architecture is proposed for the secondary system, where relay stations are employed for minimizing the interference to the users in the primary network and achieving fairness for cell-edge users in the secondary system. Based on this architecture, an asymptotically optimal solution is derived for jointly controlling data rates, transmission power, and subchannel allocation to optimize the average weighted sum goodput where the proportional fair scheduling (PFS) is included as a special case. This solution supports decentralized implementation, requires small communication overhead, and is robust against imperfect channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT) and imperfect sensing measurement. The proposed solution achieves significant throughput gain and better user-fairness compared with the existing designs. Finally, we derive a simple and asymptotically optimal scheduling solution as well as the associated closed-form performance under the proportional fair scheduling for a large number of users. The system throughput is shown to be O(N(1-qp)(1-qpN)lnlnKc), where Kc is the number of users in one cluster, N is the number of subchannels, and qp is the active probability of primary users.