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The US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is actively engaged in research and development of key technologies for vacuum electronics high-power amplifiers at frequencies ranging from 30 GHz to 1000 GHz. This work includes the development and application of physics-based modeling and simulation tools, the design and development of emittance dominated pencil and spatially distributed electron beams and associated slow-wave interaction structures, research on high-current-density emitters, the development and application of precise micro-fabrication techniques and thermal management schemes, and the development of metrology techniques in the THz regime. An overview of these activities will be presented, including a discussion of the technological advances required to achieve order-of-magnitude increases in amplifier performance. A summary of the approaches being pursued and the status of these efforts will also be presented. Future research opportunities for vacuum electronics at NRL will also be discussed.