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High sensitivity detection techniques are required for indoor navigation using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers, and typically, a combination of coherent and non- coherent integration is used as the test statistic for detection. The coherent integration exploits the deterministic part of the signal and is limited due to the residual frequency error, navigation data bits and user dynamics, which are not known apriori. So, non- coherent integration, which involves squaring of the coherent integration output, is used to improve the detection sensitivity. Due to this squaring, it is robust against the artifacts introduced due to data bits and/or frequency error. However, it is susceptible to uncertainty in the noise variance, and this can lead to fundamental sensitivity limits in detecting weak signals. In this work, the performance of the conventional non-coherent integration-based GNSS signal detection is studied in the presence of noise uncertainty. It is shown that the performance of the current state of the art GNSS receivers is close to the theoretical SNR limit for reliable detection at moderate levels of noise uncertainty. Alternate robust post-coherent detectors are also analyzed, and are shown to alleviate the noise uncertainty problem. Monte-Carlo simulations are used to confirm the theoretical predictions.
Date of Conference: 23-27 May 2010