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In order to enhance the path tracking speed and accuracy of robot in complex farmland environment,a kind of agricultural robot path tracking principle based on work target area graph was put forward in this paper. The definition of work target area graph were presented, and how to generate, initialize, and fit work target area graph was described in detail. The possible relationship between real-time tracking path and optimal path was analyzed, and corresponding fitting method as well. Robot path tracking was realized through rotating the angle of robot position. The experimental results showed that the method was of fast measuring speed, high accuracy and small absolute error and no accumulated error.