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Flexibility to support mesh topologies, dynamic capacity allocation, and automated network control and light path setup are key elements in the design of next-generation optical transport networks. To realize these capabilities, reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers with dynamic add/drop structures, embedded control planes, and lightpath characterization are required. This article presents the architectures and various ROADM implementations including colorless, directionless, and contentionless add/drop structures. The effect of scaling bit rates beyond 100 Gb/s on ROADM architectures is reviewed including providing variable channel bandwidth depending on bit rate. Automated provisioning and restoration using the GMPLS control plane and optical measurement approaches for lightpaths are also discussed.