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The factory testing of large power transformers during the early 20th century was complicated by the fact that many such transformers were designed for operation on frequencies other than 60 Hz. This meant that adequate levels of power had to be available at several frequencies for the accurate determination of the transformer core loss (no load loss). In addition, power at much higher frequencies was needed to test the integrity of the transformer insulation structure at voltage levels significantly higher than the operating voltage. An elaborate power plant was developed during the early 1900s to provide test power at a variety of frequencies at the former large transformer plant of the General Electric (GE) Company in Pittsfield, Massachusetts.