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In this paper we explore the relationship between the temporal and rhythmic structure of musical audio signals. Using automatically extracted rhythmic structure we present a rhythmically-aware method to combine note onset detection techniques. Our method uses top-down knowledge of repetitions of musical events to improve detection performance by modelling the temporal distribution of onset locations. Results on a publicly available database demonstrate that using musical knowledge in this way can lead to significant improvements by reducing the number of missed and spurious detections.