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Three soil conditions were compared to identify the number of soil bacteria or microorganisms and the activity of soil enzymes, which determine the status of soil fertility in Camellia oleifera stands in Changning region in china. Results indicated that the total and each number of three main species of microorganisms had obvious differences under different stand age. Along with the age growth, the total of microorganisms under different age showed up a trend-"low-high-low". The total number of soil microbes in the sapling forest (16.55 × 105/ g·dry soil), the mid-age forest (28.64 × 105/g·dry soil), the mature forest (19.64 × 105/g·dry soil). The same enzyme activities in the same soil depths of different forest ages are various, the unease activities of mature forest soil were the highest to 32.87 mg/g·24 h, the unease activities of mid-age forest soil were higher to 31.07 mg/g·24 h, the unease activities of young-age forest soil were 16.58 mg/g·24 h. The sucrase and catalase activities of mid-age forest were the highest, respectively 1.46 ml/g·23 h and 1.14 ml/g·20 min, the sucrase and catalase activities of young-age forest soil were higher, respectively 1.32 ml/g·23 h and 0.97 ml/g·20 min, the sucrase and catalase activities of mature forest soil were respectively 0.98 ml/g·23 h and 0.72 ml/g·20 min. With the season changes, the quantity of bacteria in the soil presented the trend that was in summer and fall the quantity were more, in winter and spring the quantity were comparatively small. The seasonal changes of the quantity of actinomyces and fungus were almost the same, in spring, fall and winter the quantity of actinomyces and fungus were more, but in summer it was small. The activities of soil urease, sucrase and catalas showed up in April, and decreased somewhat in July, and increased in October. After t- - hat, in December, the activity of soil unease and soil catalas were decreased, only soil sucrase shown the sign to up. The microorganisms populations and enzyme activities in soil were used to be the biological indicators to reflect soil problems. It was significant to study the annual change of soil microorganisms populations and enzyme activities in Oiltea Camellia Stands.