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China is faced with significant challenges in the energy sector such as energy shortage, environmental pollution, greenhouse gas emission, and energy supply in rural areas, which severely restrict its sustainable development. The promotion of a sustainable energy system is the key solution to tackling those issues. In this paper, the current status and trends of sustainable energy development in China are elaborated, taking account of renewable energy, nuclear energy, and energy efficiency. The strategies of sustainable energy in China are brought forward accordingly, and the corresponding implementations of sustainable energy development in China are expounded as well. Note that the development of clean coal and nuclear power with innovative technologies can vigorously promote China's sustainable development since renewable energy as a whole, with the exception of hydro power, is still very small compared with conventional generation. In the end, this paper concludes that China must set a step-by-step unified national energy plan to promote the construction of a sustainable energy system, which will be economically, environmentally, and socially viable, and, thus, China would play an important role to promote global sustainable development.