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The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) has been developed for the first time to provide multispectral data which is useful to detect, monitor, and predict short-term changes of coastal ocean environment around the Korean Peninsula from a geostationary platform. In this paper, an in-orbit solar calibration method for GOCI is introduced. Based on the radiometric model of GOCI, solar calibration method using onboard calibration devices has been constructed. A nonlinear radiometric model has been validated using test results obtained during ground tests. The gain parameters of the GOCI radiometric model will be continually updated by the in-orbit solar calibration. The GOCI is equipped with two onboard calibration devices: Solar Diffuser (SD) and Diffuser Aging Monitoring Device (DAMD). The SD, which is located in front of a pointing mirror covering full aperture of the GOCI, is used for calibrating end-to-end radiometric response. The DAMD, which covers partial aperture, detects a potential degradation of the SD.