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In this paper a review of the development of x-ray computed tomography (CT) for non-destructive failure analysis in microelectronics is presented. The general operation principle, key design considerations and technical challenges faced by x-ray CT technology are discussed. A comparison between 2D and 3D x-ray imaging capabilities is presented, and critical failure analysis case studies that are hard or not possible to isolate by alternative methods are also discussed, as well as its unique progressive testing capability.
Date of Conference: 2-6 May 2010