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Forensic detection of image manipulation using statistical intrinsic fingerprints

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2 Author(s)
Stamm, M.C. ; Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA ; Liu, K.J.R.

As the use of digital images has increased, so has the means and the incentive to create digital image forgeries. Accordingly, there is a great need for digital image forensic techniques capable of detecting image alterations and forged images. A number of image processing operations, such as histogram equalization or gamma correction, are equivalent to pixel value mappings. In this paper, we show that pixel value mappings leave behind statistical traces, which we shall refer to as a mapping's intrinsic fingerprint, in an image's pixel value histogram. We then propose forensic methods for detecting general forms globally and locally applied contrast enhancement as well as a method for identifying the use of histogram equalization by searching for the identifying features of each operation's intrinsic fingerprint. Additionally, we propose a method to detect the global addition of noise to a previously JPEG-compressed image by observing that the intrinsic fingerprint of a specific mapping will be altered if it is applied to an image's pixel values after the addition of noise. Through a number of simulations, we test the efficacy of each proposed forensic technique. Our simulation results show that aside from exceptional cases, all of our detection methods are able to correctly detect the use of their designated image processing operation with a probability of 99% given a false alarm probability of 7% or less.

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Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:5 ,  Issue: 3 )