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In this paper, one fabric defect detection and classification system based on 2D Gabor wavelet transform and Elman neural network is introduced. In the proposed scheme, the texture features of the textile fabric are extracted by using an optimal 2D Gabor filter. A new modified Elman network is proposed to classify the type of fabric defects which have a proportional (P), integral (I) and derivative (D) properties. The proposed inspecting system in this study is more feasible and applicable in fabric defect detection and classification.