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M-type GdTaO4 and Tb:GdTaO4 bulk single crystals were first grown by Czochralski method. Transmission, excitation, emission spectra and luminescence decay curves of them were measured. The refractive indices of GdTaO4 were calculated with its transmission spectrum and fitted with Sellmeier equation. GdTaO4 shows Gd3+ absorption and defect luminescence, Tb3+ exhibits its typical absorption and luminescence in GdTaO4. The luminescence decay times of GdTaO4 and Tb:GdTaO4 were also determined by fitting luminescence decay curves with single-exponential function.