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A seeming multitude of software process capability/maturity models (SPCMMs) have emerged, and many software engineers have had to worry about compliance with them at one time or another. Although using SPCMMs is a well-established practice, the ways they're used can vary widely. At best, they can pull together vast bodies of knowledge about good software practices-the hard-won expertise of many engineers-into a form that's easier to work with. At worst, they're misused as "processes for process' sake," in which conforming to the model stifles opportunities for innovation and tailoring. If software engineers had better knowledge about how SPCMMs are developed and the basis of their recommendations, they might be able to interpret and use them to optimize their benefits. We therefore studied these issues in a systematic literature review and follow-on questionnaire.