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Covariance-Based Vector-Network-Analyzer Uncertainty Analysis for Time- and Frequency-Domain Measurements

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5 Author(s)
Lewandowski, A. ; Inst. of Electron. Syst., Warsaw Univ. of Technol., Warsaw, Poland ; Williams, D.F. ; Hale, P.D. ; Wang, J.C.M.
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We develop a covariance-matrix-based uncertainty analysis for vector-network-analyzer (VNA) scattering-parameter measurements. The covariance matrix not only captures all of the measurement uncertainties of the scattering-parameter measurements, but also the statistical correlations between them. This allows the uncertainties of VNA scattering-parameter measurements to be propagated into the uncertainties of other quantities derived from scattering parameters, including temporal waveforms and circuit model parameters.

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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:58 ,  Issue: 7 )