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A 37 GHz total power radiometer and a temperature control system which are developed for calibration of radiometers with temperature distribution are described. The radiometer is physically divided into three system units which are RF, LO, and LF unit for thermal isolation between the units. The developed radiometer performs with good linearity and the temperature control system is able to allow temperature of target and each system unit within a range of 10° to 43°. Finally, drift of estimated target temperature which is due to variation of RF unit temperature is obtained by using the radiometer and the temperature control system. The results indicate that the developed system is capable of empirical studies for the temperature compensation method with multitemperature variables.