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Thermomagnetic measurements are used to obtain the size distribution and anisotropy of magnetic nanoparticles. An analytical transformation method is described which utilizes temperature-dependent zero-field cooling magnetization data to provide a quantitative measurement of the average diameter and relative abundance of superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Applying this method to self-assembled MnAs nanoparticles in MnAs–GaAs composite films reveals a log-normal size distribution and reduced anisotropy for nanoparticles compared to bulk materials. This analytical technique holds promise for rapid assessment of the size distribution of an ensemble of superparamagnetic nanoparticles.