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An improved form of basic genetic algorithm: Niche genetic algorithm which is based on sharing function is designed. It is aiming at the premature problem of basic genetic algorithm that existed in the back analysis of parameters of concrete thermal field. According to the measured temperature of concrete of rock anchor beam during construction period, its program composition is used to carry out the back analysis of thermal parameters, and to obtain the reasonable thermal parameters of concrete by comparing the calculation temperature with the measured temperature. With these thermal parameters, the 3D FEM is adopted to simulate the thermal field and stresses field of concrete constructed subsequently, so that the methods of temperature control and crack prevention are accepted to direct the following construction. The result shows that the higher efficiency of niche genetic algorithms compared with basic genetic algorithms.