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Recent techniques increase rapidly the amount of our knowledge on interactions between proteins. The interpretation of these new information depends on our ability to retrieve known substructures in the data, the Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) networks. In an algorithmic point of view, it is an hard task since it often leads to NP-hard problems. To overcome this difficulty, many authors have provided tools for querying patterns with a restricted topology, i.e., paths or trees in PPI networks. Such restriction leads to the development of fixed parameter tractable (FPT) algorithms, which can be practicable for restricted sizes of queries. Unfortunately, Graph Homomorphism is a W-hard problem, and hence, no FPT algorithm can be found when patterns are in the shape of general graphs. However, Dost et al.  gave an algorithm (which is not implemented) to query graphs with a bounded treewidth in PPI networks (the treewidth of the query being involved in the time complexity). In this paper, we propose another algorithm for querying pattern in the shape of graphs, also based on dynamic programming and the color-coding technique. To transform graphs queries into trees without loss of informations, we use feedback vertex set coupled to a node duplication mechanism. Hence, our algorithm is FPT for querying graphs with a bounded size of their feedback vertex set. It gives an alternative to the treewidth parameter, which can be better or worst for a given query. We provide a python implementation which allows us to validate our implementation on real data. Especially, we retrieve some human queries in the shape of graphs into the fly PPI network.
Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, IEEE/ACM Transactions on (Volume:7 , Issue: 4 )
Date of Publication: Oct.-Dec. 2010