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In this paper, a DC voltage pulse injection based method is proposed to detect the initial position and rotor polarity of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The rotor angle vibration is expressed analytically as a function of the injected pulse. The nonlinear numerical simulation model of PMSM is employed, in which the saturation saliency is incorporated as well as the structural saliency. The proposed scheme is simulated and verified by using the nonlinear model and a 2-D finite element method (FEM) algorithm, respectively. The initial position detection is tested at different starting positions and the results show that the proposed scheme can be used to identify the PMSM initial rotor position.