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Algorithms for Advanced Battery-Management Systems

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5 Author(s)

Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are ubiquitous sources of energy for portable electronic devices. Compared to alternative battery technologies, Li-ion batteries provide one of the best energy-to-weight ratios, exhibit no memory effect, and have low self-discharge when not in use. These beneficial properties, as well as decreasing costs, have established Li-ion batteries as a leading candidate for the next generation of automotive and aerospace applications. In the automotive sector, increasing demand for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in HEVs (PHEVs), and EVs has pushed manufacturers to the limits of contemporary automotive battery technology. This limitation is gradually forcing consideration of alternative battery technologies, such as Li-ion batteries, as a replacement for existing leadacid and nickel-metal-hydride batteries. Unfortunately, this replacement is a challenging task since automotive applications demand large amounts of energy and power and must operate safely, reliably, and durably at these scales. The article presents a detailed description and model of a Li-ion battery. It begins the section "Intercalation-Based Batteries" by providing an intuitive explanation of the fundamentals behind storing energy in a Li-ion battery. In the sections "Modeling Approach" and "Li-Ion Battery Model," it present equations that describe a Li-ion cell's dynamic behavior. This modeling is based on using electrochemical principles to develop a physics-based model in contrast to equivalent circuit models. A goal of this article is to present the electrochemical model from a controls perspective.

Published in:

Control Systems, IEEE  (Volume:30 ,  Issue: 3 )