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Land surface radiation and energy budgets are critical components of any land surface models that characterize hydrological, ecological and biogeochemical processes. The estimates of their components generated from remote sensing data or simulations from numerical models have large uncertainties. This paper provides a comprehensive review of recent advances in estimating insolation, albedo, clear-sky longwave downward and upwelling radiation, all-wave net radiation and evapotranspiration from ground measurements, remote sensing algorithms and products, as well as numerical model simulations. The decadal variations of these components are also discussed.