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So microprocessors are everywhere, but how is modern life different as a result? Microelectronics obviously has improved life in many ways: automation of boring and dangerous manual labor, advances in medical technology and weather forecasting, and applications of computing technology to aid the disabled, to name but a few. Indeed, the easy answer is that microprocessors have transformed modern society. They affect the way we work and play, the way we travel and communicate. They offer remarkable processing power at remarkably low cost. Silicon Valley pioneer Jerry Sanders, founder of Advanced Micro Devices, claims that if the automobile's efficiency and cost had improved at the same rate as the microprocessor's, a Rolls-Royce would now cost about three dollars and get three million miles to the gallon. But has the microprocessor fulfilled its earliest promises?