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Wearable Neural Prostheses

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5 Author(s)
Micera, S. ; Autom. Control Lab., Swiss Fed. Inst. of Technol., Zurich, Switzerland ; Keller, T. ; Lawrence, M. ; Morari, M.
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In this article, we focus on the least invasive interface: transcutaneous ES (TES), i.e., the use of surface electrodes as an interface between the stimulator and sensory-motor systems. TES is delivered by a burst of short electrical charge pulses applied between pairs of electrodes positioned on the skin. Monophasic or charge-balanced biphasic (symmetric or asymmetric) stimulation pulses can be delivered. The latter ones have the advantage to provide contraction force while minimizing tissue damage.

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Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, IEEE  (Volume:29 ,  Issue: 3 )