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Dense 3D reconstruction of extremely fast moving objects could contribute to various applications such as body structure analysis and accident avoidance and so on. The actual cases for scanning we assume are, for example, acquiring sequential shape at the moment when an object explodes, or observing fast rotating turbine's blades. In this paper, we propose such a technique based on a one-shot scanning method that reconstructs 3D shape from a single image where dense and simple pattern are projected onto an object. To realize dense 3D reconstruction from a single image, there are several issues to be solved; e.g. instability derived from using multiple colors, and difficulty on detecting dense pattern because of influence of object color and texture compression. This paper describes the solutions of the issues by combining two methods, that is (1) an efficient line detection technique based on de Bruijn sequence and belief propagation, and (2) an extension of shape from intersections of lines method. As a result, a scanning system that can capture an object in fast motion has been actually developed by using a high-speed camera. In the experiments, the proposed method successfully captured the sequence of dense shapes of an exploding balloon, and a breaking ceramic dish at 300–1000 fps.