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At the present time, quality of firebricks is detected manually one by one under a tough working environment. It is urgent to invent an automatic device to do this job. In response to this situation, this paper proposed a fast firebrick's size detecting method and device which was based on monocular machine vision technology. The method is based on the homographic principle between imaging plane and object plane during monocular imaging process. Processing the firebricks' surface image from a high resolution camera by image processing technique such as edge extracting, linking, segmenting, fitting, etc, it is able to calculate the length and width of a firebrick precisely. The test results proved that it has obtained the precision of manual method at present time and is very robust. The structure of the detecting system is simple, efficient and practical.