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The performance of the vector control depends on the precise measurements of parameters in motor. The rotor resistance is one of the most important parameters. An adaptive scheme for on-line identification of the rotor resistance based on the artificial neural networks is proposed in this paper. By using the BP algorithm theory, the rotor flux error between the voltage model and the neural network model is back propagated to adjust the weights of the neural network model which can be used to calculate the rotor resistance. The results of simulation are given to verify that the neural network observer can identify the rotor resistance accurately and rapidly. At the same time it has good robustness performance.