Skip to Main Content
Passive or semiactive wireless sensors, i.e., sensors that require neither wires nor external power supply/batteries, are attractive for many measurement problems. Standard approaches based on Radio Frequency Identification technology usually have difficulties when a fairly conductive matter such as steel or a large amount of water is in the vicinity of the devices. This paper investigates methods for power and data transmission, even through the metal walls, e.g., of a tank or a pipe using super low frequency carrier signals. The feasibility is demonstrated by means of finite-element analysis and laboratory experiments and validated with a prototype setup for both a steel pipe and a tin container. Experimental results for capacitive fill-level measurement inside a metallic container are reported.