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The residue number system (RNS) has been an important research field in computer arithmetic for many decades, mainly because of its carry-free nature, which can provide high-performance computing architectures with superior delay specifications. Recently, research on RNS has found new directions that have resulted in the introduction of efficient algorithms and hardware implementations for RNS with much better performance than previous ones. Furthermore, the applicability of RNS in many computer and digital signal processing (DSP) applications has simultaneously greatly increased. Hence, the need is evident for the development of a new and well-organized RNS teaching method with emphasis on recent achievements. In this paper, a step-by-step teaching process for RNS that describes RNS design in separate parts is presented. Each part is investigated in detail, taking into account the recent research performed on RNS. The compatibility of the proposed method with the new RNS research trends makes this method suitable for researchers as well as students.