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This paper studies the problem of adaptive resource allocation in OFDMA system. An ant colony algorithm based adaptive resource allocation is proposed in this paper. The problem is modeled as finding a minimum cost path in a graph. The ants' solution construction is guided by pheromone trail and heuristic information. Due to the unique heuristic searching mechanism of the ant colony algorithm, the proposed algorithm is guaranteed to converge quickly to an approximately optimal solution. Simulation results showed that the performance of the proposed algorithm is close to the optimal solution, and gains 1-2 dB in comparison with the fixed allocation scheme.