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With the digital city proposed, 3D visualization of underground pipe network, as an important part of the integrated management system of urban GIS, has now become the focus of attention of many scholars. In order to resolve the problems on the current 3D modeling method of urban underground pipeline network, we present a novel algorithm based on a 3D component library in this paper. The algorithm, introduces the concept of 3D component library, makes the 3D models of standard pipe fittings as element components and splits the complex 3D model of the underground pipeline network into several element components. The element components are classified by type and stored in the 3D component library. When construct the underground pipe network 3D models, firstly, gets the element components by the type ID of 2D entities, then through the approach that the combination of different element components, we can obtain the accurate 3D models. Comparing with the traditional 3D modeling method of urban underground pipeline network, this new algorithm is more lifelike and accurate. The system based on the method can improve the efficiency of its development and the reusability of its resource. This new algorithm also provides a common solution for a complex 3D model, which can construct the 3D model of complex urban facilities, such as overpass.