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Active Stereo Tracking of N\le 3 Targets Using Line Scan Cameras

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4 Author(s)
Joao P. Barreto ; Institute for Systems and Robotics and the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Coimbra, Portugal ; Luis Perdigoto ; Rui Caseiro ; Helder Araujo

This paper presents a general approach for the simultaneous tracking of multiple moving targets using a generic active stereo setup. The problem is formulated on the plane, where cameras are modeled as “line scan cameras,” and targets are described as points with unconstrained motion. We propose to control the active system parameters in such a manner that the images of the targets in the two views are related by a homography. This homography is specified during the design stage and, thus, can be used to implicitly encode the desired tracking behavior. Such formulation leads to an elegant geometric framework that enables a systematic and thorough analysis of the problem at hand. The benefits of the approach are illustrated by applying the framework to two distinct stereo configurations. In the first case, we assume two pan-tilt-zoom cameras, with rotation and zoom control, which are arbitrarily placed in the working environment. It is proved that such a stereo setup can track up to N = 3 free-moving targets, while assuring that the image location of each target is the same for both views. The second example considers a robot head with neck pan motion and independent eye rotation. For this case, it is shown that it is not possible to track more than N = 2 targets because of the lack of zoom. The theoretical framework is used to derive the control equations, and the implementation of the tracking behavior is described in detail. The correctness of the results is confirmed through simulations and real tracking experiments.

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Robotics  (Volume:26 ,  Issue: 3 )