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L-band microwave backscatter and brightness temperature of sea surfaces acquired using the Passive/Active L-band Sensor during the High Ocean Wind campaign are reported in terms of their dependence on ocean surface wind speed and direction. We find that the L-band VV, HH, and HV radar backscatter data increase by 6-7 dB from 5 to 25 m/s wind speed at a 45° incidence angle. The data suggest the validity of Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) HH model function between 5 and 15 m/s wind speeds, but show that the extrapolation of PALSAR model at above 20 m/s wind speeds overpredicts A0 and a1 coefficients. There is wind direction dependence in the radar backscatter with about 4 dB differences between upwind and crosswind observations at 24 m/s wind speed for VV and HH. The passive brightness temperatures show about a 5-K change for TV and a 7-K change for TH for a wind speed increasing from 5 to 25 m/s. Circle flight data suggest a wind direction response of about 1-2 K in TV and TH at 14 and 24 m/s wind speeds. The L-band microwave data show excellent linear correlation with the surface wind speed with a correlation better than 0.95. The results support the use of L-band radar data for estimating the wind-driven excess brightness temperature of sea surfaces. The data also support the applications of L-band microwave signals for high-resolution (kilometer scale) observation of ocean surface winds under high wind conditions (10-28 m/s).