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For the thermal process is of special features, and it could be disturbed by uncertain factors easily, a novel modeling method based on least mean square (LMS) adaptive filter is presented. Based on the internal model control (IMC) principle, the sub-loop system and the inert area of the superheated steam system are considered as a generalized control object, an internal model-P cascade control system is designed. The models are built by the adaptive LMS filter, the corresponding internal controller is designed, and the self-adaptive control of the full operating condition is realized. The simulation result under typical operating condition in the superheated steam process of a supercritical once-through 600 MW boiler show that the method has a good regulating performance. The method is based on the online identification; it is adapted to the complex industrial process whose dynamic characters varied with different operating conditions.