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In the prospect of employing 10 Gigabit Ethernet as networking technology for online systems and offline data analysis centers of High Energy Physics experiments, we performed a series of measurements on the performance of 10 Gigabit Ethernet, using the network interface cards mounted on the PCI-Express bus of commodity PCs both as transmitters and receivers. In real operating conditions, the achievable maximum transfer rate through a network link is not only limited by the capacity of the link itself, but also by that of the memory and peripheral buses and by the ability of the CPUs and of the Operating System to handle packet processing and interrupts raised by the network interface cards in due time. Besides the TCP and UDP maximum data transfer throughputs, we also measured the CPU loads of the sender/receiver processes and of the interrupt and soft-interrupt handlers as a function of the packet size, either using standard or ¿¿jumbo¿¿ Ethernet frames. In addition, we also performed the same measurements by simultaneously reading data from Fibre Channel links and forwarding them through a 10 Gigabit Ethernet link, hence emulating the behavior of a disk server in a Storage Area Network exporting data to client machines via 10 Gigabit Ethernet.