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Driver distraction and inattention are prominent causes of automotive collisions. To enable driver-assistance systems to address these problems, we require new sensing approaches to infer a driver's focus of attention. In this paper, we present a new procedure for static head-pose estimation and a new algorithm for visual 3-D tracking. They are integrated into the novel real-time (30 fps) system for measuring the position and orientation of a driver's head. This system consists of three interconnected modules that detect the driver's head, provide initial estimates of the head's pose, and continuously track its position and orientation in six degrees of freedom. The head-detection module consists of an array of Haar-wavelet Adaboost cascades. The initial pose estimation module employs localized gradient orientation (LGO) histograms as input to support vector regressors (SVRs). The tracking module provides a fine estimate of the 3-D motion of the head using a new appearance-based particle filter for 3-D model tracking in an augmented reality environment. We describe our implementation that utilizes OpenGL-optimized graphics hardware to efficiently compute particle samples in real time. To demonstrate the suitability of this system for real driving situations, we provide a comprehensive evaluation with drivers of varying ages, race, and sex spanning daytime and nighttime conditions. To quantitatively measure the accuracy of system, we compare its estimation results to a marker-based cinematic motion-capture system installed in the automotive testbed.