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This paper presents a cellular force measurement technique that allows for mechanical characterization of mouse oocytes during microinjection (i.e., in situ) without requiring a separate characterization process. The technique employs an elastic cell holding device and a sub-pixel computer vision tracking algorithm to resolve cellular forces in real time with a nanonewton force measurement resolution (2 nN at 30 Hz). The experimental results demonstrate that the in situ obtained force-deformation data could be useful for distinguishing healthy mouse oocytes from those with aging-induced cellular defects. The technique represents a promising means to provide a useful cue for oocyte quality assessment during microinjection.