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In the modern history of China, the government's scientific and technological policy and its technology innovation policy are logically connected. The Chinese government's high technology policy has been shaped by complicated political and economic circumstances both domestically and internationally; both the past and the present have influenced this dynamic between policy decisions and external conditions. The national technological innovation strategy plays an important role in creating a system that coordinates the interaction between China's high technology policy and its development strategy. All of these structured relationships constitute an important part of public policy in China. At the present, as the process of globalization speeds ahead, the national competitiveness of any country in the world strategically depends on both its research on high technology and its high technology industry. The government of any country has to confront this reality as a matter of public policy because to develop high technology requires a huge basic investment. The high technology policy and the high technology development strategy of a country will ideally feature institutional arrangements that adapt to these trends.