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This paper develops a simulation-based framework for optimal sizing of the additional energy storage required to retrofit a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) to a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Simulations are conducted on a vehicular model developed for a midsize sedan (Toyota Prius) using a new weekly vehicle-usage profile constructed for average driving and most probable parking times based on the data collected in the city of Winnipeg (Canada). Three battery technologies that are commercially available for electric vehicle propulsion are used in the simulations to determine the optimal sizing of the battery storage, given the constraints on the volume of the battery pack for lowest cost. Overnight-charging and opportunity-charging scenarios are also implemented in the simulation, and their impact on the optimal sizing is discussed.
Date of Publication: July 2010