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This paper focuses on estimating the amplitude of harmonic components of a harmonically distorted sine wave by the interpolated discrete Fourier transform (IpDFT) method with maximum sidelobe decay windows. The expression of the maximum of the interference error caused by the fundamental sine-wave component on the amplitude estimation of harmonic components is derived. In addition, for a signal corrupted by stationary white noise, the statistical efficiency of the IpDFT method is investigated with respect to the single-tone unbiased Crame??r-Rao lower bound (CRLB). Based on the derived expressions, a constraint is derived ensuring that interference from the fundamental component could practically be neglected. Finally, the performance of the IpDFT method is compared with that of the energy-based method on the basis of theoretical, simulation, and experimental results and with that of a state-of-the-art method according to simulation and experimental results.