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As a sensor network has a limited node resources and unexpected changes of external environment, its nodes should show energy efficiency, reliable data transmission, and topological adaptation to the change of external environment. However, it is not easy to satisfy these requirements at the same time. This study proposes Robust and Energy efficient Dynamic Single path routing (REDS), a routing mechanism that satisfies the above-mentioned conditions at the same time using a dynamic single path in a multi hop sensor network. In REDS, each node transmits data through the optimal single path using hop count to the sink and average residual energy according to the change of external environment. For reliable data transmission, each node monitors its own transmission process. In case of a topological change, only the changed part is reconstructed instead of the whole network, and this enhances the energy efficiency of the network. The results of experiment showed that REDS proposed in this study is superior in energy efficiency and provide its adaptability to topological changes.