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A 64 Mb spin-transfer-torque MRAM in 65 nm CMOS is developed. A 47 mm2 die uses a 0.3584 Â¿m2 cell with a perpendicular-TMR device. To achieve read-disturb immunity for the reference cell, a clamped-reference scheme is adopted. An adequate-reference scheme is implemented to suppress read-margin degradation due to the resistance variation of reference cells.