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A careful reading of all three of Fano's papers shows that he talked about Â£in terms of bandwidth only. The connection between bandwidth and Q was made by Mattaei, Young, and Jones [1, see 11.08-1]. To thus attribute Fano limits in terms of Q to Fano is incorrect. Of course, there is a reason why the attribution by Matthaei et al. makes sense, in that the Fano results are useful primarily for narrowband antennas (electrically small antennas). For these, it is well understood that Q approximately equals l/BW. This was shown to be very accurate for small dipoles and loops. The QBÂ¿ of Lopez and my BWIF are thus essentially the same. Lopez derived a very useful formula for BWIF in terms of Â¿ and his coefficients: this was Equation (2) in "Correct Impedance Matching Limitations." However, the lengthy and repetitive "Rebuttal" serves no useful purpose.